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【轉載】英語語法-省略句
[來源:本站 | 作者: 加高 | 日期:2015年1月19日 | 瀏覽3999 次] 字體:[ ]

省略句學案

1. 簡單句中的省略:

在對話中,交談雙方都知道談論的對象,則可以省略句子的主語,省略主語和謂語的現象在交際用語中出現的很多。

(1)Looks like rain.

(2)Hope to hear from you soon.

(3)Sounds like a good idea.

(4)Beg your pardon.

(5)Feeling better today ?

(6)This way, please.

(7)—What does he want to eat ?

  —Some rice and vegetables.

(8)Anything I can do for you ?

(9)Sorry to hear that.

(10)Doesn’t matter.

(11)Terrible weather!

(12)Pity you couldn’t come.

2. 并列句中的省略:

在并列句中,相同的成分如主語,謂語,賓語等都可以省略:

(1)They learn French and we English.

(2)My father planned and built all these houses.

(3)John won the first race and Jimmy the second.

(4)Coral is not a plant but a variety of animal life.

3. 復合句中的省略:

定語從句:

(1)That’s the reason he is late for the conference.

(2)I don’t like the way he talks.

狀語從句:

(1)If heated, water will boil.

(2)Tom was attacked by cramp while swimming across the river.

(3)We’ll go to help you if necessary.

(4)Had I time, I would come.

(5)I’ll go, should it be necessary.

(6)The captain can find a boat quicker than we can.

賓語從句:如果賓語從句中的謂語部分與主句的謂語部分或上文的謂語部分相同,可將從句部分的謂語省略。

(1)We will do what we can(do)to help you.

(2)—Is Mr. King in his office?

  —Sorry, I don’t know(whether he is in his office or not).

4. 動詞不定式的省略:在動詞不定式結構中,為了避免重復,常常省略不定式結構中的動詞原形,只保留to。

(1)—Would you like to go with us ?

  —I’m glad to, but I have to finish my homework.

(2)Don’t tell me the name of the sailor if you don’t want to.

(3)—Have you ever been to the seaside?

  —No, we can’t afford to.

在used to, ought to, have to, would like/love to, wish to, be going to等結構中,常常省略to后面的動詞原形。

(1)They do not visit their parents as much as they ought to.

(2)He doesn’t get up early as he used to.

(3)I’ll hand it in if I have to.

(4)—Would you like to come tonight ?

         —I’d love to.

Tell , warn , order , advise , ask等動詞的賓語后面接動詞不定式做賓語補足語時,可以省略to后面的動詞原形。

(1)He wanted to swim across the river but I warned him not to.

(2)The boy wanted to play football in the street, but his mother told him not to.

 

 

省略在語言中特別是日常交際中一種普遍現象,了解常見的省略現象有助于我們準確理解句子的語境,在應試復習中要注意不定式結構的省略方式以及一些幾乎形成了慣用法的省略句。同時應當在書面表達中學會恰當地使用省略,使寫出的東西更加精練,干脆利索。

 

1. When first _____ to the market, these products enjoyed great success.

A. introducing                                          B. introduced

C. introduce                                       D. being introduced

分析:when引導的時間狀語從句,如果從句的主語和主句的主語相同,且從句中謂語部分有be時,可以省略句中的主語和be,本句中when后面省略了these products were.

答案:B

2. It shames me to say it, but I told a lie when _____ at the meeting by my boss.

A. questioning              B. having questioned     C. questioned       D. to be questioned

分析:本句when后面省略了I was                                                                         

答案:C

3. What surprised me was not what he said but _____ he said it.

A. the way             B. in the way that     C. in the way          D. the way which

分析:way表示:“方式”后面的定語從句由that / in which 引導或者省略關系代詞,本句的定語從句he said it省略了關系代詞。                                                                  

答案:A

4. —Susan, will you please go and empty that drawer?

  —______?

A. What for           B. What is it      C. How is it          D. How come

分析:第二個人不知道為什么要倒空抽屜,所以問為什么。What for(為什么)它的完整表達應是What are you going to use the empty drawer for ?                                             

答案:A

5. I’m looking forward as much to her return as she herself to _____ me.

A. have seen          B. seeing      C. meet        D. be met

分析:本句后半部分as she herself to _____ me是as she herself is looking forward to seeing me的省略。                                                                                                                     

答案:B

6. Who can you turn to in time of danger, if not ______?

A. ourselves           B. ours      C. we             D. us

分析: if not ______ 是if you don’t turn to us 的省略。                                            

答案:D

7. —Did you visit the museum last week ?

 —No, we _____, but we spent too much time shopping.

A. could have               B. could      C. must have        D. must

分析:句中we _____是we could have visited the museum last week.的省略形式。

答案:A

8. —Is your mother going to the supermarket ?

 —No, ______.

A. she doesn’t                      B. she’s cooking

C. she gets by bus                 D. to a tailor’s shop

分析:根據對話的語境,表明:我媽媽不打算去超市,而是去裁縫鋪。to a tailor’s shop

是She is going to a tailor’s shop.的省略。                                                                

答案:D

9. —She may not be free today.

  —_____, we’ll have to put the meeting off.

A. If may              B. If not     C. If she may not    D. If she may not be free today

分析:答語的前半部分的完整回答應是:If she is not free today.                             

答案:B

10. She hurriedly left the room as if _____.

A. she angry          B. was angry      C. it was angry      D. angry

分析:when, if. Unless, while, though / although, as if/though引導的狀語從句,如果從句的主語和主句的主語相同,且從句中謂語部分有be時,可以省略句中的主語和be。

答案:D

11. —_____ did you come to know the actor ?

   —He’s a close friend of my sister’s.

A. How          B. Why     C. Where         D. When

分析:根據答語He’s a close friend of my sister’s :他是我姐姐的一個好朋友。可以知道:對方在問:你是怎么認識那位男演員的。                                                                     

答案:A

12. —Can you give me a hand with this table? I want to move it.

—Sure. _____ are you going to put it?

A. Why          B. How      C. Where     D. When

分析:上文說:我想挪一下這張桌子。所以第二個人問:你想把它放在哪里?     

答案:C

13. — _____did you sleep last night ?

   —I sat up reading too late to fall asleep.

A. How long          B. How soon    C. How      D. When

分析:根據回答:I sat up reading too late to fall asleep.:我看書看太晚了以致于睡不著了。可以知道對方在問:你昨晚睡得怎么樣?                                                                     

答案:C

 

練習

1. _____, I will help you with your work.

A. If I am possible      B. If it possible     C. If possible      D. Possible

2. —Do you follow me? —Yes, _____.

A. it is good          B. I will     C. perfectly          D. very good

3. —How are you getting on with your work ?

—Oh, I’m sorry. Things aren’t going so well as _____.

A. plans         B. planning     C. planned                     D. to plan

4. —Are you a teacher?

 —No, but I _____. I worked in a middle school for three years.

A. am            B. will      C. do              D. was

5. —How many poor counties will there be in our province by 2010?

 —There will be only a few, if _____.

A. much         B. some      C. any         D. many

6. —Why didn’t you come to Mike’s birthday party yesterday ?

 —Well, I_____, but I forgot it.

A. should                     B. must     C. should have        D. must have

7. Doctors have said that as many as 50% of patients don’t take medicine _____.

A. like directed                           B. to be directed

C. as directed                              D. so that directed

 

 

答案

1. C    If possible:如果有可能的話。已經成為了慣用語是If it is possible的省略。

2. C    perfectly  是I follow you perfectly的省略。

3. C    事情不象計劃的那樣好。完整句是:…as it was planned.

4. D    but I _____是But I was a teacher 的省略。

5. C  if _____的完整表達是:If there were any poor provinces….

6. C  I_____的完整表達是:I should have gone to Mike’s birthday party yesterday.

7. C  有50%的病人沒有按醫囑吃藥。完整表達是:as many as 50% of patients don’t take medicine as they are directed by the doctors.


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